Restorative Dentistry

There are many service areas that Drs. Galper and Martin specializes in.  Among them are Fillings, Crowns , Inlays and Onlays, Dentures, Implants, Root Canal Treatments, Bridges, and TMJ Treatments. Read more about each speciality below.

It's my hope that they will graduate more confident, more willing to continue learning and use technology and their expertise in a range of fields we never could have imagined, ... all for the creation of a better future -  Ann Jackson


    Fillings are done to remove decay, and replace the affected tooth structure. Decay can be treated easily and painlessly. Untreated decay can lead to infection and tooth pain possibly requiring the need for a crown and/ or a root canal treatment.  Untreated and advanced decay can lead to tooth loss. Today, most teeth are treated with bonded tooth colored composite resin fillings.


    Crowns are full coverage restorations that are used to cover a tooth that is likely to break, or is too broken down to be restored with a filling. They are most commonly done after root canal treatment, or when a large filling wears out. The larger the hole made by a cavity that has to be treated, the more likely a crown will be needed. Even after a filling is put in a large cavity, a tooth is more likely to break. Teeth are subjected to tremendous pressures. Crowns cover the weakened tooth, providing strength and protection against further breakage. A broken or cracked tooth is a far more serious matter and much more difficult to treat. Crowns prevent this, as well as making for a nice smile.

    A crown is made, usually of high-strength porcelain over gold alloy, all ceramic material, or all gold. The type of crown is best determined by the location of the tooth being treated.

    It takes two appointments to restore a tooth with a crown. The first appointment is called the preparation appointment. During this time all decay is removed and weakened parts of the tooth may be strengthened with build-up restorative materials. The tooth is then reshaped to receive a crown. An impression is made of the newly shaped tooth for use by a laboratory in fabricating the final crown. A custom provisional crown is made and you are dismissed. There is little if any post treatment sensitivity.

    The second visit is called the seating appointment. The provisional crown is removed and the tooth is thoroughly cleaned The final crown is adjusted as needed and then cemented in place. This is a brief visit and usually completed gently free of numbing.


    Some teeth have large fillings or decay with a large area of unaffected and strong tooth structure. These damaged areas are too large to be restored with bonding and a crown could be too aggressive. An excellent solution for this scenario is an inlay or onlay made of precious metal or tooth colored resins and ceramics. This restorations are exquisitely engineered and comparable to gems inlaid into fine jewelery.

    The treatment creating inlays and onlays is similar to the treatment to fabricate crowns. These restorations are conservative and log lasting. The materials are selected based on the location of the tooth to be restored and the esthetic needs of the patient.


    There are different types of dentures, but they share their common function. They replace teeth that will be or have been lost as a result of decay, gum disease, or trauma.

    The entire mouth is examined and a determination is made as to which teeth will have to be removed, and which will remain. The loose teeth are then extracted. Dentures are fitted to go over or around whatever teeth remain in the mouth, depending on the type. There is an adjustment period after dentures are placed in the mouth, and it can take some getting used to. But once accustomed to the dentures, all the normal functionality and appearance return. Often implants can used to further stabilize the dentures.


    A dental implant is a reliable and beautiful option to replace a missing tooth and prevent the jaw bone atrophy that occurs when a tooth is lost. The implant is a small titanium shaft that is gently and surgically positioned into the bone which grows around it forming a tight connection. Once the implant is firmly set in the mouth, an outer shaft is attached and the dentist the dentist takes impressions (see crowns) to attach the replacement crown onto the top of the shaft. This permanent solution that behaves like a natural tooth, stimulates normal bone growth, does not decay, and can be flossed like a natural tooth. Screw retained implanted crowns can often be retrieved for future maintenance and care. The alternative restorative treatment for replacing a missing tooth is a bridge which is invasive to the teeth required to support the bridge, while trapping food and being vulnerable to future decay. The long term success rate of an implant versus a bridge is much greater and therefore less costly in the long term.has the advantages over bridge work in that it does not stress the surrounding teeth for support.

    Implants can also be strategically positioned for retaining a removable denture. This is an excellent service as the dentures will not slip of fall out and more importantly, the jawbone structure is preserved because the implant behaves like the root of a tooth stimulating the jawbone to regenerate itself in a natural manner. This prevents the collapsed lip syndrome of a denture wearer while enhancing a more youthful appearance.

    We also offer mini dental implants. These implants are about half the diameter of traditional implants are used mainly to stabilize lower dentures. These implants can be placed in one appointment and be immediately used. The cost is 50-70% of standard dental implants.


    Root canal treatment (endodontic therapy) is a treatment option available to save a tooth once a nerve or tooth pulp has been damaged. The pulp can be damaged by decay, multiple deep restorations, fractures or accidents resulting in a blow to the tooth. Once this occurs the pulp becomes infected. This infection can extend through the root tip and begin to erode the surrounding bone (this is an abscess). The tooth could become sensitive to hot and cold temperatures and chewing. Swelling and fever could also occur. The pulp cannot heal on its own. It can even weaken the entire immune system. Sometimes no symptoms are present and the person is unaware of any problem until the eroded bone (abscess) is found on an x-ray.

    Endodontic therapy is treatment of the canal(s) inside the root of the tooth. The nerve and blood supply of the tooth are removed from the inside of the canal(s). The infection is removed and the canals are sterilized. Once the infection is resolved, the canal(s) are filled in to prevent any further infection. The tooth becomes nerveless and is restored with a filling or a build-up restoration and crown within two months of endodontic therapy.

    We have a vast array of highly skilled and gentle endodontists (root canal specialists) to serve your individual needs.

    Regular cleanings and checkups can prevent and detect problems early.


    It is important that a missing tooth be replaced as soon as possible. Teeth depend on their neighbors for support and with one missing, they start to fall, surrounding the gap, shifting and causing a collapse of teeth into the space once occupied by the missing tooth. The remaining teeth will have greater demands placed on them and as this worsens the bite changes in response to the pressure. This can eventually result in problems with the entire jaw, including Temporomandibular Joint (TMJ) Dysfunction. Decay and gum disease could become more of a problem and the space more difficult to treat the longer the space remains.

    Bridges are a dependable functional and esthetic option for filling the space/s created by a missing tooth/teeth. Bridges are “fixed” in the mouth and use two or more adjacent teeth that must be prepared for crowns tied together for strength. The materials used may be gold alloys, porcelain bonded to metal alloy, or all ceramic material. The choice of material depends on requirements for strength, wear, and/or esthetics.


    TMJ stands for the temporal-mandibular joint. This is the joint that hinges the mandible (lower jaw) onto the skull and is located on front of and beneath the ears. The TMJ is a complex system of muscles, tendons, and, ligaments.

    When inflammation occurs, the delicate balance of muscle and tissues can get strained. Problems in this joint may be caused by a misalignment of the teeth, trauma, grinding or clenching, or excess muscle tension resulting in:

    • Headaches
    • Earaches
    • Trouble/soreness in opening and closing the mouth
    • Clicking or popping of the jaw
    • Pain in the jaw muscles
    • Soreness in the area, sometimes extending to the face

    Dental treatments for the condition can include replacing missing teeth, moving teeth, adjusting the bite, filling gaps between teeth, etc. There is no one solution that is right for all cases. A plastic mouth guard is used to reduce clenching or grinding that is contributing to the problem. If untreated and taken to extremes, surgery may be required to repair a badly damaged joint.


It was a high counsel that I once heard given to a young person, "Always do what you are afraid to do." Ralph Waldo Emerson